” Freedom of the press is not only important for democracy, it is democracy.” (Walkter Cronkite, American journalist).
Yesterday was World Press Freedom Day , celebrated around the world and which serves to remind governments of the need to respect their commitments to freedom of the press. It was proclaimed in 1993 by the United Nations General Assembly on the recommendation of the UNESCO General Conference. It is held every May 3 to coincide with the anniversary of the Declaration of WIndhoek, a seminar organized by UNESCO in the capital of Namibia in 1991, in which journalists and representatives of African media prepared a document containing the principles freedom of the press.
World Press Freedom Day also serves to:
- Celebrate the fundamentals of freedom of the press and journalism.
- Assess the situation of press freedom around the world.
- Defend the media from attacks against its independence.
- Pay tribute to journalists who have lost their lives in the line of duty.
WHAT IS JOURNALISM?
The question about the different types of journalism is common among people who want to dedicate themselves to this profession, and it is normal because a career in journalism must cover all fields of our lives. From pure information to technological, medical or educational information, through different media such as newspapers, television or radio.
It is very likely that you are already familiar with the most common means of communication through which the news is spread. With technological development and the appearance of new platforms, different kinds of journalism have appeared. It happened once with the radio, then with television and today it is happening with the internet. From the supports that allow the information to get through, different kinds of journalism have been developed and continue to be developed, such as:
- Written journalism: it is the oldest and the best known to all. It was considered that journalism was born with the printing press, since it was possible to massively produce brochures, pamphlets and other written communication vehicles. Today, we are talking about newspapers and magazines that convey information through the written and printed word.
- Radio journalism: it is spread through the radio and it is the one that appeared after newspapers, magazines, weeklies and other printed media. For many decades it was one of the most popular and is still consumed in large volume, especially due to its lower cost and the ease of adapting to current news.
- Audiovisual journalism: this is something that we consume every day, especially in the form of news programs on television, although there are also television gatherings, informative magazines or debates. This type of journalism encompasses many characteristics and skills, which you can learn with a DEGREE IN AUDIOVISUAL COMMUNICATION .
- Photojournalism: Photography has also made possible a new way of doing journalism. Photojournalism is very characteristic when we talk about protest matters or war scenarios, since it is where photography can transmit much more than words. On the other hand, the figure of the paparazzi also belongs to this branch of journalism, although always linked to the pink press.
- Multimedia journalism: Population growth, the development of new types of media and the need to communicate through technology has increased in recent years. Multimedia journalism involves the use of text, images, sound, video clips, GRAPHICS to tell stories in an attractive way. Professionals working in multimedia journalism use digital tools and social media platforms to share their stories with an online audience.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF JOURNALIST
In addition to categorizing journalism in the types already mentioned in this post, we should also highlight the different types of journalists that exist:
- Sports Journalism: The SPORTS JOURNALISM focuses on the issue of news and reports of sporting events.
- Cultural and leisure journalism . They report on the business of leisure and culture, including movies, television, books, and events. They cover movie premieres and award ceremonies, as well as news about the entertainment and leisure industry.
- Investigation journalism. Investigative journalism involves thoroughly investigating a topic to expose evidence and deliver findings from figures or organizations. This type of journalism requires more time to plan, prepare, and investigate and is generally a longer way to fully report investigation details, findings, and conclusions.
- Financial or commercial journalism : Specialized journalists detail the movements and developments in business that impact the people involved in that sector. Includes industry-specific news for products such as oil, metals, and agriculture, as well as business sectors, such as travel, finance, and healthcare.
- Political journalism : Political journalism focuses on government, politics, and political candidates. It covers different segments of political activity, such as local, national or international news.